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Wednesday, May 18, 2022

[Botany • 2022] Nervilia hemratii (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae: Nervilieae) • A New Species (Sect. Linervia) from southwest Thailand [Studies in Asian Nervilia (Orchidaceae) VIII]


Nervilia hemratii S.W.Gale, Tetsana & Suddee,  

in Gale, Tetsana & Suddee, 2022. 
ว่านแผ่นดินเย็นเห็มรัตน์  ||  DOI: 10.1007/s12225-022-10024-5

Summary
A new one-flowered species of Nervilia section Linervia is described and illustrated based on material collected in Kanchanaburi Province, southwest Thailand. The white and magenta-spotted labellum and glabrous, angular leaf immediately identify N. hemratii S.W.Gale, Tetsana & Suddee as yet another member of the taxonomically challenging Nervilia adolphi/punctata species alliance, with the purple streaks on the leaf rendering it practically indistinguishable from N. infundibulifolia Blatt. & McCann in the vegetative state. However, the new species differs in the outline and coloration of its labellum, which bears two pubescent ridges on the hypochile and a third on the epichile.

Key Words: Cryptic species, Nervilia adolphi/punctata alliance, species complex, taxonomy



 

Stephan W. Gale, Naiyana Tetsana and Somran Suddee. 2022. Studies in Asian Nervilia (Orchidaceae) VIII: N. hemratii, another New Member of Section Linervia from Thailand. Kew Bulletin. DOI: 10.1007/s12225-022-10024-5


ว่านแผ่นดินเย็นเห็มรัตน์ 
Nervilia hemratii S.W. Gale, Tetsana & Suddee sp. nov. 
วงศ์ Orchidaceae
กล้วยไม้ดินชนิดใหม่ของโลก ใน section Linervia จากภาคตะวันตกของประเทศไทย ตีพิมพ์ออนไลน์ในวารสาร Kew Bulletin DOI 10.1007/s12225-022-10024-5 เมื่อ 14 พฤษภาคม 2022 

กล้วยไม้ดิน สูงประมาณ 12 ซม หัวใต้ดินทรงกลม สีขาวแกมน้ำตาล ใบสีเขียวเป็นมัน เส้นใบสีม่วงเข้ม ใบรูปห้าเหลี่ยม ปลายแหลม โคนรูปหัวใจ ขอบเรียบ ช่อดอกตั้งตรง ยาวประมาณ 10 ซม กลีบเลี้ยงและกลีบดอกสีเขียว มีแต้มสีน้ำตาลแกมม่วง กลีบปากรูปไข่กลับ กลางกลีบมีแถบสีเหลือง ล้อมด้วยแต้มสีม่วง ซึ่งกล้วยไม้ชนิดที่เพิ่งค้นพบใหม่นี้ลักษณะใบคล้ายกับ Nervilia infundibulifolia Blatt & McCann ซึ่งมีการกระจายพันธุ์ที่กว้างกว่า

การดำเนินโครงการวิจัยความหลากหลายของพันธุ์พืชในระบบนิเวศเขาหินปูนประเทศไทย ได้สำรวจพรรณไม้ในพื้นที่อุทยานแห่งชาติเอราวัณ อ.ศรีสวัสดิ์ จ.กาญจนบุรี พบตัวอย่างกล้วยไม้ที่มีเฉพาะใบจึงนำมาปลูกเลี้ยงในเรือนเพาะชำ เมื่อถึงฤดูออกดอกพบว่าเป็นชนิดที่ไม่สามารถระบุชนิดได้ จึงส่งให้ผู้เชี่ยวชาญในกล้วยไม้สกุล Nervilia นี้ช่วยตรวจสอบ พบว่าเป็นพืชชนิดใหม่ของโลก จึงได้รายงานลงในวารสารระดับนานาชาติ

ทั้งชื่อไทยและคำระบุชนิด ตั้งเพื่อเป็นเกียรติให้ นายจันดี เห็มรัตน์ เจ้าหน้าที่ประจำกลุ่มงานพฤกษศาสตร์ป่าไม้ (หอพรรณไม้) ผู้ปฏิบัติงานจัดการตัวอย่างพรรณไม้และช่วยงานภาคสนามมาอย่างเข้มแข็งตั้งแต่ยุค ศ. ดร.เต็ม สมิตินันทน์ มีความเชี่ยวชาญในการสังเกต จำแนกพรรณไม้กลุ่มต่าง ๆ ในภาคสนามเป็นอย่างดี 

งบประมาณดำเนินโครงการวิจัยความหลากหลายของพันธุ์พืชในระบบนิเวศเขาหินปูนประเทศไทย สนับสนุนโดย สำนักวิจัยการอนุรักษ์ป่าไม้และพันธุ์พืช กรมอุทยานแห่งชาติ สัตว์ป่า และพันธุ์พืช 
 ขอบคุณเจ้าหน้าที่อุทยานแห่งชาติเอราวัณ ที่อำนวยความสะดวกในงานภาคสนามเป็นอย่างดี และขอบคุณทีมงานสำรวจพรรณไม้เขาหินปูนที่ร่วมมือกันอย่างแข็งขัน

   

[Paleontology • 2022] Sacacosuchus cordovai • Miocene Fossils from the southeastern Pacific shed light on the last Radiation of Marine Crocodylians


Sacacosuchus cordovai
Salas-Gismondi, Ochoa, Jouve, Romero, Cardich, Perez, DeVries, Baby, Urbina & Carré, 2022

 
Abstract
The evolution of crocodylians as sea dwellers remains obscure because living representatives are basically freshwater inhabitants and fossil evidence lacks crucial aspects about crocodylian occupation of marine ecosystems. New fossils from marine deposits of Peru reveal that crocodylians were habitual coastal residents of the southeastern Pacific (SEP) for approximately 14 million years within the Miocene (ca 19 to 5 Ma), an epoch including the highest global peak of marine crocodylian diversity. The assemblage of the SEP comprised two long and slender-snouted (longirostrine) taxa of the Gavialidae: the giant Piscogavialis and a new early diverging species, Sacacosuchus cordovai. Although living gavialids (Gavialis and Tomistoma) are freshwater forms, this remarkable fossil record and a suite of evolutionary morphological analyses reveal that the whole evolution of marine crocodylians pertained to the gavialids and their stem relatives (Gavialoidea). This adaptive radiation produced two longirostrine ecomorphs with dissimilar trophic roles in seawaters and involved multiple transmarine dispersals to South America and most landmasses. Marine gavialoids were shallow sea dwellers, and their Cenozoic diversification was influenced by the availability of coastal habitats. Soon after the richness peak of the Miocene, gavialoid crocodylians disappeared from the sea, probably as part of the marine megafauna extinction of the Pliocene.

Keywords: Gavialoidea, longirostrine ecomorphs, biogeography, phylogenetics, marine crocodylians

Phylogenetic position of Sacacosuchus cordovai and other marine taxa (represented by their skulls) recovered within and outside the Crocodylia, with ancestral range reconstructions provided by S-DIVA.


 Photograph and schematic drawing of the skulls of Sacacosuchus cordovai gen. et sp. nov. from Sacaco at different ontogenetic stages. Adult specimen (holotype: MUSM 162) in dorsal (a), ventral (b), right lateral (e) and occipital (f) views. Sub-adult specimen (MUSM 161) in dorsal (c), ventral (d), left lateral (g; inverted) and occipital (h) views. Juvenile specimen (MUSM 160) in dorsal (i) view.
ba, basioccipital; bs, basisphenoid; CH, choana; cq, cranioquadrate foramen; ec, ectopterygoid; ec.mx, maxilla surface for ectopterygoid; EN, external naris; eo, exoccipital; f, frontal; fcp, foramen carotideum posterior; IF, incisive foramen; ITF, infratemporal fenestra; j, jugal; j.la, lacrimal surface for jugal; j.mx, maxilla surface for jugal; l, lacrimal; ls, laterosphenoid; m5, m9, m14, maxillary tooth positions; mx, maxilla; n.pm, premaxilla surface for nasal; na, nasal; OR, orbit; p, parietal; pa, palatine; pa.mx, maxilla surface for palatine; pf, prefrontal; pm, premaxilla; p3, p4, premaxillary tooth positions; po, postorbital; pt, pterygoid; q, quadrate; qj, quadratojugal; qj.q, quadrate surface for quadratojugal; s, shelf; so, supraoccipital; sq, squamosal; STF, supratemporal fenestra; SOF, suborbital fenestra; v, foramen vagus; xii, foramen for hypoglossal nerve. 
All photographs to the same scale. Scale bar equals 5 cm.



Crocodyliformes Hay, 1930  
Crocodylia Gmelin, 1789 
Longirostres (Cuvier, 1807)
Gavialidae (Adams, 1854)

Sacacosuchus cordovai gen. et sp. nov.

  Etymology: Sacaco after the rich fossiliferous area from where most remains were found; cordovai after colleague and Prof. Jesús Córdova, to honour his brave and unconditional support to develop palaeontology in Peru.



 
 
Rodolfo Salas-Gismondi, Diana Ochoa, Stephane Jouve, Pedro E. Romero, Jorge Cardich, Alexander Perez, Thomas DeVries, Patrice Baby, Mario Urbina and Matthieu Carré. 2022. Miocene Fossils from the southeastern Pacific shed light on the last Radiation of Marine Crocodylians. Proc. R. Soc. B. 289: 20220380. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2022.0380


[Botany • 2022] Dendrobium fuscifaucium (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae: Dendrobieae) • A New Species from Laos


Dendrobium fuscifaucium Souvann. & Kumar, 

in Souvannakhoummane, Kumar & Phonepaseuth, 2022. 
 facebook.com: ແກ້ວອຸດອນ ສຸວັນນະກຸມມານ

Abstract
Dendrobium fuscifaucium is described here as a new species from Laos PDR. This species was found at a local nursery and was claimed to have been collected from the limestone mountains of Kasi District (Vientiane Province). Detailed description and comparison, comparison with its allied species, D. hekouense, D. luoi and D. wangliangii is provided, along with flowering phenology and information on habitat. Multiple attempts have failed to locate this species in the wild.

Keywords: orchid trade, new taxa, section Dendrobium, epiphytic, taxonomy, Monocots

 Dendrobium fuscifaucium Souvann. & Kumar, 
 A–C. Habit. D. Flower, side view. E. Flower, front view. F. Sepals, petals and column. G. Labellum. H. Anther cap, dorsal view. I. Anther cap, ventral view. J. Anther cap, posterior view.
All from (KS1400) by K. Souvannakhoummane.

Dendrobium fuscifaucium Souvann. & Kumar, 
A. Habit. B. Flower, front view. C. Flower, side view. D. Flower, ventral view. E. Young fruit. F. Sepals, petals and column. G. Labellum. H. Anther cap, dorsal view. I. Anther cap, ventral view. J. Anther cap, posterior view. K. Pollinium.
All drawn from live plant (KS1400) by K. Souvannakhoummane.


Dendrobium fuscifaucium Souvann. & Kumar, sp. nov.

Etymology:— Refering to dark brown colour on the disc of the labellum.

 Vernacular name:— ເຜິ້ງຊັອກໂກແລັດ [Ueang Sok Ka Lat, 
chocolate-lipped dendrobium]


Keooudone Souvannakhoummane, Pankaj Kumar and Phongphayboun Phonepaseuth. 2022. Dendrobium fuscifaucium (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae: Dendrobieae), A New Laotian Species only known in cultivation. Phytotaxa. 541(3); 285-290. DOI: 
ດອກເຜິ້ງຊະນິດໃໝ່ຂອງໂລກ

   

[Herpetology • 2022] Varanus citrinus Between A Rock and A Dry Place: Phylogenomics, Biogeography, and Systematics of Ridge-tailed Monitors (Varanidae: Varanus acanthurus complex)


 Varanus citrinus
Pavón-Vázquez, Esquerré, Fitch, Maryan, Doughty, Donnellan & Scott Keogh, 2022

photo by Jules E. Farquhar.  twitter.com/FarquharJules

 Highlights
• We used single nucleotide polymorphisms mitochondrial sequences, and morphological data to infer the evolutionary history of ridge-tailed monitor lizards.
• We identified nine populations which we propose belong to four species.
• The geographic distribution of the populations and admixture patterns reflect the aridification of Australia and highlight the importance of rocky escarpments as mesic refugia.
• We identified and described a new species from a region that has been recognized as a historical refugium in northern Australia.

Abstract
Genomic data are a powerful tool for the elucidation of evolutionary patterns at the population level and above. The combined analysis of genomic and morphological data can result in species delimitation hypotheses that reflect evolutionary history better than traditional taxonomy or any individual source of evidence. Here, we used thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms, mitochondrial sequences, and comprehensive morphological data to characterize the evolutionary history of the ridge-tailed monitors in the Varanus acanthurus complex (V. acanthurus, V. baritji, and V. storri), a group of saxicolous lizards with a wide distribution in Australia, the driest vegetated continent. We found substantial genetic structure in the group and identify nine geographically clustered populations. Based on admixture patterns and species delimitation analyses we propose a taxonomic scheme that differs from current taxonomy. We consider V. acanthurus as monotypic, synonymize V. baritji with V. a. insulanicus (as a redefined V. insulanicus), elevate the subspecies of V. storri to full species (V. storri and V. ocreatus), and describe a new species from a previously identified center of endemism. The relationships among the species remain unresolved, likely as a result of fast speciation. Our study highlights the capability of large datasets to illuminate admixture patterns, biogeographic history, and species limits, even when phylogeny is not completely resolved. Furthermore, our results highlight the impact that the Cenozoic aridification of Australia had on saxicolous taxa and the role of mesic rocky escarpments as refugia. These habitats apparently allowed the persistence of lineages that became sources of colonization for arid environments.

Keywords: Aridification, Australia, morphometrics, phylogeography, refugia, species delimitation

Geographic distribution of species in the Varanus acanthurus complex. Only localities with sequenced or morphologically examined individuals are mapped. Lines indicate state/territory borders.
Photographs by Stephen M. Zozaya.

Varanus citrinus 
probably female from Cape Crawford, NT.
photo by Jules E. Farquhar.

 Varanus citrinus sp. n.

Etymology. The Latin specific epithet is treated as an adjective. Citrinus means “related to lemon trees”, and refers to the bright yellow throats of males of the new species. We propose the common names “Gulf Ridge-tailed Monitor” or “Gulf Ridge-tailed Goanna”.

 
Carlos J. Pavón-Vázquez, Damien Esquerré, Alison J. Fitch, Brad Maryan, Paul Doughty, Stephen C. Donnellan and J. Scott Keogh. 2022. Between A Rock and A Dry Place: Phylogenomics, Biogeography, and Systematics of Ridge-tailed Monitors (Squamata: Varanidae: Varanus acanthurus complex). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. In Press, 107516. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2022.107516
 twitter.com/NicholasWuNZ/status/1526468712739377152

[Ichthyology • 2022] Pangio pathala • A New Diminutive Subterranean Eel Loach Species of the Genus Pangio (Teleostei: Cobitidae) from southern India


Pangio pathala
Sundar, Arjun, Sidharthan, Dahanukar & Raghavan, 2022
 

Abstract
A second subterranean species of Pangio is described from an old dug-out well in Kerala, Southern India. The new species, Pangio pathala is unique within the genus in possessing the highest number (27) of caudal vertebrae. Pangio pathala is distinguished from P. bhujia, the only subterranean Pangio species known so far, in having four pectoral-fin rays (vs. three), five anal-fin rays (vs. six), 67 vertebrae (40 abdominal and 27 caudal vertebrae) (vs. 62–63), and a raw genetic distance of 8.1–8.7% in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene. This paper also provides an additional record of Pangio bhujia from a location 40 km south of the type locality.

Keywords: Pisces, freshwater fish, groundwater, Taxonomy, Western Ghats 



Pangio pathala 


Remya L. Sundar, C.P. Arjun, Arya Sidharthan, Neelesh Dahanukar and Rajeev Raghavan. 2022. A New Diminutive Subterranean Eel Loach Species of the Genus Pangio (Teleostei: Cobitidae) from Southern India. Zootaxa. 5138(1); 89-97. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.5138.1.9


[Ichthyology • 2022] Phenacorhamdia suia • A New Species of Phenacorhamdia (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) from the Xingu River Basin


Phenacorhamdia suia 
 Silva, Ochoa & Castro, 2022

Photographed by Dario Faustino-Fuster.

Heptapteridae is a diverse group of catfishes composed of 231 valid species endemic to the Neotropical region, recognized in two subfamilies: Rhamdiinae and Heptapterinae. Phenacorhamdia is a Heptapterinae member and currently has 13 valid species broadly distributed throughout the main river basins of South America. Here we described a new species of Phenacorhamdia from the Xingu River basin. Morphological data were obtained from 30 specimens under 23 morphometric measures and 6 meristic counts. The new species differs from congeners based on the exclusive combination of the following diagnostic characters: atypical mottled colored body and all fins with interradial membranes mottled pigmented; multicuspid teeth; maxillary barbel reaching pectoral-fin origin; lacking a short extension of the first pectoral-fin ray; caudal fin lobes extremely elongated and pointed; and 43−45 total vertebrae.

Keywords: Amazon River basin, Brazilian Shield, Catfishes, Taxonomy.


Phenacorhamdia suia, MNRJ 24850, holotype, 81.8 mm SL,
Brazil, Mato Grosso State, São Félix do Araguaia, upper Xingu River basin.
Photographed by Dario Faustino-Fuster.

Phenacorhamdia suia, new species

Diagnosis. Phenacorhamdia suia differs from all congeners by having an atypical mottled colored body (Figs. 1−2) (vs. uniformly counter-shaded, without mottled pattern; with a longitudinal dark brown stripe along the dorsal half of the body in P. unifasciata), and by having all fins with interradial membranes pigmented and mottled (vs. fins with interradial membranes hyaline). Additionally, P. suia differs from all congeners, except P. taphorni by having multicuspid teeth (vs. conical teeth) (Fig. 3). The new species differs from some of its congeners by maxillary barbel reaching pectoral-fin origin (vs. maxillary barbel reaching the end of adpressed pectoral fin in P. anisura, P. boliviana, P. nigrolineata, and P. tenebrosa; reaching half the length of pectoral fin in P. tenuis; surpassing pectoral fin in P. provenzanoi and P. taphorni; reachingpelvic-fin origin in P. macarenensis); lacking a short extension of the first pectoral-fin ray (vs. present in P. anisura, P. macarenensis, P. nigrolineata, P. provenzanoi, and P. taphorni), by caudal fin deeply forked with extremely elogated and pointed lobes (vs. moderately pointed in P. hoehnei; rounded in P. somnians); and by having 43−45 total vertebrae (vs. 39 in P. taphorni; 41 in P. hoehnei; 41−42 in P. tenebrosa;46−47 P. unifasciata; 47−48 in P. provenzanoi; 53−55 in P. tenuis). 

Etymology. The specific name “suia” refers to the Suias indigenous people who, since the 90’s, have stood out in the fight to protect the Suiá-Missu River environment and for recovery of their traditional lands outside the limits of Xingu park. A noun in apposition.


 Gabriel S. C. Silva, Luz E. Ochoa and  Íthalo S. Castro. 2022. New Species of Phenacorhamdia (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) from the Xingu River Basin. Neotrop Ichthyol. 20(2); e210143.  DOI: 10.1590/1982-0224-2021-0143


Resumo: Heptapteridae é um grupo diverso de bagres neotropicais composto por 231 espécies válidas, endêmicas da região Neotropical, divididas em duas subfamílias: Rhamdiinae e Heptapterinae. Phenacorhamdia é um membro de Heptapterinae e atualmente possui 13 espécies válidas amplamente distribuídas pelos principais rios da América do Sul. Aqui nós descrevemos uma nova espécie de Phenacorhamdia da bacia do rio Xingu. Dados morfológicos foram obtidos de 30 espécimes, 23 medidas morfométricas e seis contagens merísticas. A nova espécie é diferenciada de suas congêneres com base na seguinte combinação de características: um atípico corpo manchado com as membranas interradiais de todas as nadadeiras manchadas; dentes multicuspidados; barbilhão maxilar atingindo a origem da nadadeira peitoral; ausência de uma curta extensão do primeiro raio da nadadeira peitoral; lóbulos da nadadeira caudal extremamente alongados e pontiagudos, e 43−45 vértebras.
Palavras-chave: Bacia do rio Amazonas; Bagres; Escudo Brasileiro; Taxonomia

[Crustacea • 2022] Thailandorchestia rhizophila • A New Genus and Species of Driftwood Hopper (Amphipoda: Protorchestiidae) from Thailand


Thailandorchestia rhizophila
 Wongkamhaeng, Dumrongrojwattana, Sumitrakij & Saetung Keetapithchayakul, 2022
 
กุ้งเต้นเจาะไม้ |  facebook.com/KoraonWongkamhaeng

Abstract
During a scientific survey, a new genus of driftwood hopper was found in mangrove roots in Ko Kut District, Trat Province, Thailand. We placed this new genus, Thailandorchestia gen. nov., within the family Protorchestiidae. The new genus can be distinguished from the remaining genera by uropod 1 outer ramus with robust setae, uropod 2 outer ramus without robust setae, and pereopod 7 basis without a posterodistal lobe. The type species of Thailandorchestia gen. nov., Thailandorchestia rhizophila sp. nov., is described herein, and an updated key to the genera of the family Protorchestiidae is provided.

Keywords: Description, Ko Kut District, marsh hopper, Talitroidea, Thailandorchestia gen. nov.

Thailandorchestia rhizophila sp. nov.
 a holotype, male, 8.04 mm, THNHM-Iv- 18760
b allotype, female, 7.80 mm, THNHM-IV- 18961
c rotting mangrove log, habitat of Thailandorchestia rhizophila sp. nov. 

Thailandorchestia rhizophila sp. nov. holotype, male, 8.04 mm, THNHM-Iv- 18760.
Scale bars: 1 mm.

Systematics
Order Amphipoda Latreille, 1816
Suborder Senticaudata Lowry & Myers, 2013

Family Protorchestiidae Myers & Lowry, 2020

Genus Thailandorchestia gen. nov.

Diagnosis: Protorchestiidae with maxilliped palp article 2 distomedial lobe absent. Mandible left lacinia mobilis 4-dentate. Gnathopod 2 coxal gill simple. Pereopod 4 carpus significantly shorter than carpus of pereopod 3. Pereopods 6–7 sexually dimorphic (male merus and carpus incrassate). Pereopod 7 posterodistal lobe absent. Uropod 1 peduncle distolateral robust setae present, very large (1/3–1/2 length of outer ramus); inner ramus linear, not modified; outer ramus with marginal robust setae. Uropod 2 outer ramus without marginal robust setae. Uropod 3 peduncle with 2 robust setae; ramus shorter than peduncle, linear (narrowing). Telson apically incised, with 2 robust setae per lobe.

Etymology: The generic name, Thailandorchestia gen. nov., is derived from “Thailand” in combination with the Orchestia stem.

Type locality: Mangrove forest near Ban Ao Prao Beach (11°35'40.2"N, 102°33'52.6"E), Trat Province, Thailand.

Ecological type: Driftwood hoppers (virtually confined to rotting driftwood where they live in galleries, consuming rotting driftwood and reproducing with relatively small broods).


 Thailandorchestia rhizophila sp. nov. 

Diagnosis: As for the genus unless otherwise stated. Antenna 1 long, reaching from midpoint to end of article 5 of antenna 2 peduncle. Eye medium (1/5–1/3 of head length). Gnathopod 1 not sexually dimorphic, palm transverse, dactylus shorter than palm. Gnathopod 2 sexually dimorphic (male subchelate, female mitten-shaped). Pleopod 1 outer ramus subequal in length to peduncle. Pleopod 3 outer ramus longer than peduncle.

Ecology: Driftwood hoppers, living inside rotten logs and mangrove roots in the softest part under the bark. The mangrove forest is located near a small creek 50 meters from the beach. The sediment in the forest is muddy sand mixed with leaf litter.

Etymology: The specific epithet refers to the habitat of this amphipod, which is also found inside mangrove roots.


Habitat: Mangrove wood, inside roots and rotting logs.

Distribution: Thailand, Ko Kut District, Inner Gulf of Thailand.


Koraon Wongkamhaeng, Pongrat Dumrongrojwattana, Ratchaneewarn Sumitrakij and Tosaphol Saetung Keetapithchayakul. 2022. Thailandorchestia rhizophila sp. nov., A New Genus and Species of Driftwood Hopper (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Protorchestiidae) from Thailand. ZooKeys. 1099: 139-153.  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1099.82949

Tuesday, May 17, 2022

[Botany • 2022] Nephoanthus prostratus & N. nubigenus (Melastomataceae: Sonerileae) • A New Genus segregated from Phyllagathis s.l., with A New Species from Southern Vietnam


Nephoanthus nubigenus C.W. Lin, Luu & T.C. Hsu

in Lin, Hsu, Luu, Yang & Li, 2022. 

Abstract
A new genus, Nephoanthus, is established based on morphological and molecular data. It comprises two species distributed in montane forests of central to southern Vietnam and Hainan Island: the type species N. prostratus and a new species N. nubigenus. Nephoanthus is morphologically similar to Phyllagathis but phylogenetically remote from the type species of Phyllagathis in the analyses of both plastid genome and nrITS sequences. Nephoanthus is genetically associated to but significantly morphologically distinct from Driessenia, Heteroblemma, Medinilla and Tigridiopalma. A detailed morphological comparison of Nephoanthus and related taxa is provided.

Keywords: Asia, biodiversity, endemism, taxonomy, phylogeny, morphology, Eudicots



  Nephoanthus prostratus (C.Hansen) C.W. Lin & T.C. Hsu



Nephoanthus nubigenus C.W. Lin, Luu & T.C. Hsu




Che-Wei Lin, Tian-Chuan Hsu, Hong Truong Luu, Tsung-Yu Aleck Yang and Chia-Wei Li. 2022. Nephoanthus (Melastomataceae: Sonerileae), A New Genus segregated from Phyllagathis s.l., with A New Species from Southern Vietnam. Phytotaxa. 547(1); 66-76. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.547.1.6

    

[Botany • 2022] Wurfbainia ellipticarpa, W. geostachyoides, W. parviflora, etc. • Six New Species of Wurfbainia (Zingiberaceae) from Thailand


Wurfbainia yingyongii Kaewsri, 

in Kaewsri & Sangvirotjanapat, 2022. 

ABSTRACT
Six new species are described from Thailand: Wurfbainia ellipticarpa, W. geostachyoides, W. globosa, W. longiflora,  W. parviflora and W. yingyongii. A line drawing and photographs, information on phenology,  distribution, ecology and etymology, and a proposed IUCN conservation category are provided for each species. A key to the species of Wurfbainia in Thailand is also provided.
 
Keywords: AmomumCardamom, Ginger, Flora, Taxonomy

Wurfbainia ellipticarpa Kaewsri, sp. nov.
 A, Ligule; B, leaves; C, inflorescence; D, mature infructescence; E, young infructescence.
All photographs of the type collection (Kaewsri 024), taken by W. Kaewsri.

Wurfbainia ellipticarpa Kaewsri, sp. nov.

Similar to Wurfbainia villosa (Lour.) Škorničk. & A.D.Poulsen but differs in its narrower labellum (c.1 cm vs c.1.5 cm), inflorescence lax (vs congested) and fruit ellipsoid (vs globose to ovoid).

Habitat. Thrives in dry evergreen forest in light gaps at 800 m altitude.

Etymology. The specific epithet refers to the ellipsoid fruit. 


 Wurfbainia geostachyoides Kaewsri, sp. nov.
 A, Habit; B, stilt roots and inflorescences; C, ligule; D, leaves; E, flower; F, flowers; G, young fruits; H, ripe fruits.
All photographs of the type collection (Kaewsri 223), taken by W. Kaewsri.

Wurfbainia geostachyoides Kaewsri, sp. nov.

Similar to Wurfbainia microcarpa (C.F.Liang & D.Fang) Škorničk. & A.D.Poulsen but differs in its shorter ligule (c.2 mm vs 7–10 mm), abaxial blade surface glabrous (vs tomentose) and lateral staminode apex truncate (vs rounded and hooded).

Habitat. Dry evergreen and tropical rain forest under shrubs or trees or on hill slopes at 260–950m altitude.

Etymology. The specific epithet refers to the distinctly woody rhizome raised above ground with stilt roots, which recalls the genus Geostachys (Baker) Ridl.


  Wurfbainia globosa Kaewsri, sp. nov.
 A, Leaves; B, inflorescence and infructescence; C, flower; D, bract; E, bracteole; F, calyx; G, corolla (dissected); H, labellum; I, stamen; J, stigma; K, fruit.
Drawn from Kaewsri 027 by W. Kaewsri.

Wurfbainia globosa Kaewsri, sp. nov.

Similar to Wurfbainia villosa (Lour.) Škorničk. & A.D.Poulsen but differs in its ligule apex bilobed (vs round or emarginate), calyx apex bilobed (vs trilobed) and labellum apex bilobed (vs shallowly trilobed).

Habitat. Dry evergreen forest under shrubs or trees at 215m altitude.

Etymology. The specific epithet refers to the globose fruit.


Wurfbainia longiflora Kaewsri, sp. nov.

Similar to Wurfbainia uliginosa (J.Koenig) Škorničk. & A.D.Poulsen but differs in its shorter leafy shoot (0.6–1.7 m vs 2.4–4.1 m), inflorescence size (3 × 1.2 cm vs 3–5 × 2–3 cm), longer floral tube (3.7–4.2 cm long including ovary vs c.2.5 cm long including ovary) and young fruit white (vs green).

Habitat. Tropical rain and evergreen forest under shrubs and trees at 215 m altitude.

Etymology. The specific epithet refers to the distinct long floral tube.


Wurfbainia parviflora Kaewsri, sp. nov.

Similar to Wurfbainia micrantha (Ridl.) Škorničk. & A.D.Poulsen but differs in its blade size (11–21 × 2–4 cm vs 15–30 × 0.6–2 cm), blade pubescent on both sides (vs glabrous on both sides) and calyx tube apex bilobed (vs trilobed).

Habitat. Dry evergreen forest in light gaps at c.800 m altitude.

Etymology. The specific epithet refers to the small flower.


Wurfbainia yingyongii Kaewsri, sp. nov.
A, Young leafy shoot; B, pseudostem base; C, ligule; D, leaves; E, inflorescence; F, infructescence; G, fruit (cross-section).
All photographs of the type collection (Kaewsri 001), taken by W. Kaewsri.

Wurfbainia yingyongii Kaewsri, sp. nov.

Similar to Wurfbainia biflora (Jack) Škorničk. & M.F.Newman but differs in its labellum ovate (vs obovate) and orange middle band on labellum (vs mid-red to dark red band).


Habitat. Dry evergreen forest, under shade of shrubs and trees, c.400 m altitude.

Etymology. The specific epithet honours Associate Professor Dr Yingyong Paisooksantivatana, who dedicated his life to the study of Amomum sensu lato in Thailand.

 
W. Kaewsri and S. Sangvirotjanapat. 2022. Six New Species of Wurfbainia (Zingiberaceae) from Thailand. EDINBURGH JOURNAL OF BOTANY. 79; Article 369 (1–23). DOI: 10.24823/EJB.2022.369


[Ichthyology • 2022] Evolutionary Relationships of Anglerfishes (Lophiiformes) reconstructed using Ultraconserved Elements


Evolutionary Relationships of Anglerfishes (Lophiiformes) 

in Hart, Arnold, Alda, Kenaley, ... et Chakrabarty, 2022. 


Highlights
• The evolutionary history of anglerfishes is unclear.
• We constructed molecular phylogenies of Lophiiformes using UCE loci.
• We recovered novel topologies for the Ceratioidei deep-sea anglerfishes.
• Three new frogfish families were proposed and Antennariidae was re-evaluated.
• We resolved relationships among frogfishes but deep-sea anglers remain uncertain.

Abstract
The macroevolutionary consequences of evolving in the deep-sea remain poorly understood and are compounded by the fact that convergent adaptations for living in this environment makes elucidating phylogenetic relationships difficult. Lophiiform anglerfishes exhibit extreme habitat and predatory specializations, including the use of a fin-spine system as a luring device and unique reproductive strategies where parasitic males attach and fuse to females. Despite their notoriety for these odd characteristics, evolutionary relationships among these fishes remain unclear. We sought to clarify the evolutionary history of Lophiiformes using data from 1000 ultraconserved elements and phylogenomic inference methods with particular interest paid to the Ceratioidei (deep-sea anglerfishes) and Antennarioidei (frogfishes and handfishes). At the suborder level, we recovered similar topologies in separate phylogenomic analyses: The Lophioidei (monkfishes) are the sister group to the rest of the Lophiiformes, Ogcocephaloidei (batfishes) and Antennarioidei (frogfishes) form a sister group, and Chaunacioidei (coffinfishes) and Ceratioidei (deep-sea anglerfishes) form a clade. The relationships we recover within the ceratioids disagree with most previous phylogenetic investigations, which used legacy phylogenetic markers or morphology. We recovered non-monophyletic relationships in the Antennarioidei and proposed three new families based on molecular and morphological evidence: Histiophrynidae, Rhycheridae, and Tathicarpidae. Antennariidae was re-evaluated to include what was known as Antennariinae, but not Histiophryninae. Non-bifurcating signal in splits network analysis indicated reticulations among and within suborders, supporting the complicated history of the Lophiiformes previously found with morphological data. Although we resolve relationships within Antennarioidei, Ceratioidei relationships remain somewhat unclear without better taxonomic sampling.
 
Keywords: Phylogenomics, UCEs, Target capture, Next-generation sequencing, Deep sea




Pamela B. Hart, Rachel J. Arnold, Fernando Alda, Christopher P. Kenaley, Theodore W. Pietsch, Destinee Hutchinson and Prosanta Chakrabarty. 2022. Evolutionary Relationships of Anglerfishes (Lophiiformes) reconstructed using Ultraconserved Elements. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 171; 107459. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2022.107459